Saturday, July 18, 2020
Chronophobia or the Fear of Time Phobias Types Print Chronophobia Is Characterized by a Fear of Time By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on June 19, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on December 12, 2019 Altrendo Images / Getty Images More in Phobias Types Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment In This Article Table of Contents Expand Prevalence Symptoms Treatments Prevention View All Back To Top Chronophobia is characterized by the fear of the passage of time,?? usually, because people fear that their time on Earth is limited or have trouble tracking its passing. Even though time isnt fully concrete, some may consider it as a type of specific phobia, similar to how one would fear a cat or snake. Prevalence of Chronophobia Some populations experience chronophobia, the fear of time, more than others. In fact, since it is so common in prison populations it is sometimes known as prison neurosis.?? The elderly, as well as people facing terminal illnesses who worry that their time on Earth may be limited, may also face this fear. Time becomes their enemy, and they fear it because its passing will ultimately lead to their death. The fear of time also sometimes presents in the wake of severe trauma, such as a natural disaster, particularly if the daily routine is seriously disrupted. It is also relatively common among shipwreck survivors and others who are trapped in a high-anxiety situation with no familiar means of tracking the passage of time. In fact, a sense of a foreshortened future has previously been used as one of the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).?? Symptoms Chronophobia is marked by a sense of derealization in which time seems to speed up or slow down. Some people develop circular thought patterns, racing thoughts, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prisoners often mark down the days until their release.?? Many victims will also experience panic, anxiety, and claustrophobia, which are common symptoms of most phobias as well as common reactions to trauma. Panic attacks, sweating, shortness of breath, and even persistently haunting thoughts are also often reported, but only in extreme cases.?? Treatments In extreme cases, untreated chronophobia can lead to isolation, depression, and even increasingly disordered thinking. It is important to seek advice from a qualified mental health professional as soon as possible.?? Chronophobia responds well to such standard phobia treatments as cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy. As it is closely linked with other disorders, however, it is best to diagnose and treat all concurrent conditions simultaneously.?? In some cases, psychiatrists may prescribe medications, but psychotherapy remains the primary treatment for phobias. Prevention of Chronophobia Since the fear of time is often caused by situations that cannot be fully controlled, like illness, it is difficult to prevent. More general anxiety and stress management techniques also exist.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 753 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/22 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Happiness Essay Did you like this example? Happiness is the meaning and purpose to life, the whole aim, and end to human existence, said Aristotle more than 2,000 years ago. Happiness seems to always be the goal in our lives but what is the secret or key to it? It seems almost impossible to construct or make a plan to have a confirmed happy life. A Harvard study started in 1938 has made some insight to some secrets that not all of us may have realized. During the Great Depression in 1938, Harvard scientists took 268 physically and mentally healthy Harvard sophomores for a longitudinal study on happiness. This study included no females because, at the time, Harvard was an all-male school. This first study was known as the Grant Study There was a second study named The Glueck Study where the directors took 456 inner-city Boston men and studied them. These subjects happened to be a bit poorer than the Harvard subjects. Starting in 1939, a year after the Grant Study began, having the second control group helped scie ntists examine the differences between the two upcoming. This determines whether or not, money is a factor in happiness. Information on the subjects was gathered by personal interviews. Questions included were on career enjoyment, physical and mental health, retirement, their marriage quality. The goal of the study was to more or less, identify predictors of healthy aging. Scientists studied what psychosocial variables biological processes in childhood could predict the outcomes of older age. If that earlier lifetime could affect intimate relationships and marriage in the future. In this first generation study, scientists found in their subjects that relationships were one of the key factors in their health and well-being. The surprising finding is that our relationships and how happy we are in our relationships have a powerful influence on our health, said Robert Waldinger, director of the study, a psychiatrist at Massachusetts General Hospital and a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Taking care of your body is important, but tending to your relationships is a form of self-care too. That, I think, is the revelation. It was studied that relationships took over happiness more than fame or money. This was found in both studies. They also found other small results, such as alcoholism was a disorder. It was the main cause of divorces between The Grant Study men and their wives. It also found that instead of depression or neurosis being the cause of alcohol abuse it tended to precede it instead. Linked to cigarettes, this was the number one contributor to death. Another result found that financial success has nothing to do with intelligence, but depends on the warmth of their relationships. There was no significant difference between the incomes of men with low IQs versus men with high IQs. But those considered with high warm relationships earning about one hundred and forty-four thousand dollars more a year during their peak salaries than those not measuring high in warm relationships. One of the most interesting results was that those close with their mothers in childhood had a better work ethic, and earned an average of eighty-seven thousand dollars a year, more than those who were uncaring with their mothers. Those who were cold towards their mothers were more likely to get dementia when they were older as well. Men who were closer to their father as a child were less likely to have adult anxiety. They also enjoyed vacations or relaxing more. And unlike men being close to their mothers, they had increased life satisfaction at age seventy-five. Warmth in relationships had ultimately been the biggest factor in life satisfaction. George Eman Vaillant, another psychiatrist, and professor at Harvard Medical School, and director on the study wrote three books on the studies and concluded that Happiness is love. Full stop. Today, the studies continue on. Nineteen of the original subjects still live on to this day in their mid-nineties. The study has been going on for more than eighty years and is the longest study of adult life. The second generation study is in effect as well. This includes the first two studies offspring, which totals about 1,300 subjects who are now in their 50s and 60s. This study has and continues to prove that happiness is as simple as having long and lasting warm relationships. People who are close with their family have a greater chance of living long and prosperous and being the most satisfied with their lives. So maybe that long phone call with your mom doesnt sound too bad now, huh? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Happiness is the Purpose to Life" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
4 Ways to Increase Likability By Silvia Mordini I never thought in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"likesÃ¢â¬ until I joined facebook 5 years ago. This simple word Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ has reframed my perspective. I have a love/hate relationship with it. Although I appreciate how important likability is for positive human relationships, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want how we view each other and the world to be in the buckets of like or not. However in this new world of liking and friending, we have to find a way to make it work for us. Why? Because fundamentally we all prefer to be friends, do business, fall in love and work for people we like. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s begin with defining Ã¢â¬Å"likability.Ã¢â¬ According to Urban Dictionary, Ã¢â¬Å"Likable, charismatic, a trait in someone that is warm familiar comfortable and easy to be around. Friend worthy, A trait generally noticed right away instant feeling of comfort and trust desirable to be around.Ã¢â¬ Expert Tim Sanders, defines it in his book The Likeability Factor as having these 4 characteristics: 1. Friendliness: your ability to communicate liking and openness to others 2. Relevance: your capacity to connect with others interests, wants, and needs 3. Empathy: your ability to recognize, acknowledge, and experience other people s feelings 4. Realness: the integrity that stands behind your likeability and guarantees its authenticity Melissa Tamkins of Columbia University studied likability in the workplace for many years and concluded this: Ã¢â¬Å"Success in the workplace is guaranteed not by what or whomShow MoreRelatedNon Profit Organization Marketing : An Organization Essay1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesinitially introduced by United Nations in 1960s, defined NGO as an aggregation from voluntary citizens to form an organization whose purpose are focus on local, national or even international level to dedicated to some particular issues on social causes like animal protection, same sex marriage or mental health to bring citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ concern to governments while encourage others stakeholders to participated in the organization to strive for social improvement by providing physical goods or services, monitoringRead MoreThe Effects of Advertising on Children33281 Words Ã |Ã 134 Pages........................................................................ 57 Australian Communications and Media Authority 2 Summary Preface This report was prepared by the Bond University Centre for New Media Research and Education between August and November 2006. The research team was Dr Jeffrey E. Brand (Director), Dr Mark Bahr (Psychology), Ms Jill Borchard and Ms Tanya Neves, (PhD students at the Centre). This research was conducted by independent researchers and the conclusions
Who are the victims of mental health and how they are treated within the legal and prison system? Mental health or mental illness, base on the question, Ã¢â¬Ëis concern with illnesses of the mind, or with treating illnesses of the mind.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Longman, p.890) These illnesses, which affect the mind, create hallucinations that can lead the people who suffer from them to cause harm to the innocent people who fall victim to them. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Health and the Prison System or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to the Longman dictionary, the word Ã¢â¬ËvictimÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to Ã¢â¬Ësomeone who has been attacked, robbed or murderedÃ¢â¬â¢. (Longman, p.1593) It can also refer to someone who suffers because they are affected by an illness. In January 1999, a young woman was pushed from behind, in front of a New York City subway train, to her death. Her murderer was a mentally ill patient who had refused to consume his medication. This young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Kendra Webdale and the KendraÃ¢â¬â¢s law was named after her. She was considered a victim of mental health. There are many other cases who were fall victim to these illnesses. Due to their mental illnesses, many people questioned whether these Ã¢â¬ËcriminalsÃ¢â¬â¢ should be charged and face the consequences or should they be treated in the hospital for the mentally ill under strict control and supervision. They are being view as the victims of the mental health for the reason that they are not in their Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ minds to judge. This occurs because they are suffering from the illness affecting their mind. Looking from the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view, they are undergoing a lot of stress due to their conditions as they have fears that they are not accepted by the family, friends and society. With the stress they are undergoing, they might not be able to face the fact and would not want to take their medication. This had led to intervention of the legal system to control the situation. According to KendraÃ¢â¬â¢s Law, a procedure has to be followed for obtaining court orders for certain individuals with mental illness to receive and accept assisted outpatient treatment (AOT). (Office of Mental Health, 2006) The mentally ill individual who can qualify for AOT must be at least 18 years old and shows a sign of being incapable of surviving on his own. In view of the concern that the patient may do serious harm to others in the society, an AOT is more likely to benefit him. The request for AOT can be done by the parent, spouse, sibling, director of a hospital, licensed psychologist or a probation officer. However, there are some lawyers who contest that the law will only serve to violate the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s process protection. In addition, many wonder if the implementation of this law is strong enough to force a person to take medication. There is always the possibility of the patient having tried to seek treatment but failed. As such, the government should not simply laws to force the taking of medication but for the state to provide medication as well. In the case of the prison system, there has been a significant increase in the number of inmates who are found to be severely mentally ill. Despite the increase in the number of inmates, the medical treatment necessary for this group of inmate did not increase. Moreover, the staff handling them are not properly trained and thus, many of these inmates are being victimized in the prison cells due to their disorganized speech and behaviour. Their inability to communicate well with others may in turn antagonize their officers or fellow inmates. In conclusion, the victims of mental health do not necessarily refer to only the ones suffering from the illness but those who are indirectly affected as well. The patients should be given proper and better treatment and the society should also be educated on how these patients need to be treated in order to survive in the society. Bibliography 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Harold E. Shabo. 2001. Social Costs: Criminal Justice and Mental Health System Gaps which Contribute to the Criminalization of Mentally Disordered Persons. California. 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Longman. 1999. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English: International Students Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Spain. 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Office of Mental Health. 2006. An Explanation of KendraÃ¢â¬â¢s Law. 4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã About: Mental Health. 2006. Forced Mental Treatment has a Place. Ã http://www.mentalhealth.about.com/cs/schizophrenia/a/commit204.htm 5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mental Health Services. 2006. Bureau of Mental Health Services. http://www.drc.state.oh.us/web/mentalhealth.htm How to cite Mental Health and the Prison System, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Trainers Report Essay Trainers ReportPurpose:The purpose of this training session is to teach the trainee how to fold a turtle. In the Korean culture, by folding a thousand turtles, it brings truth, victory and luck to the person who is receiving it as a gift. Learning Objective:After this training session, the trainee will be able to successfully fold a turtle with different colors and sizes paper. Pre-training: Follow me step by step and will walk through each step consistently Finished turtles in a bottle to show traineeTraining Plan:(Supplies Needed)? 500 1000 pieces of color or plain 50 x 50 (mm) papers? bottle to hold 500-1000 turtles or something similar to hold them1) Take out one piece of paper from the box2) Fold paper in halve3) Open paper 4) Fold paper in quarters5) Repeat step 2 ; 3 for the other side of the paper (now you have 16 small squares)6) Open paper 7) Fold a triangle8) Open paper 9) Fold another triangle for the other side of paper10) Take one corner and fold inward to the center point (do so for all 4 corners)11) Unfold and push opposite side of the paper inward to form a big triangle12) Take one corner of triangle and fold in to the center foot13) Repeat step 9 for all four corners14) Now that you have a little house shape, push all four corners in to center foot so that a diamond shape is formed15) Fold two corners in halve for both side16) Now fold th e triangle in halves again for both side to make the legs for the turtle17) Fold the two corners of the diamond towards the middle to form a Christmas tree shape. We will write a custom essay on Trainers Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 18) Do so for both side of the diamond19) Pull the top inward to make the head for the turtle20) Pull the other top inward to make the tail for the turtle21) Hold on to the four legs22) Gently pull outward to form the shell23) Now all you have to do is to repeat step 1 to 19, nine hundred ninety-nine times and the gift will be finishedPost Training:Remember to fold according to the crease that you have created and that whatever you do on one side, make sure you repeat it for the other side as well. Evaluation:? Did trainee complete all steps Is the turtle in the shape that it requires Did trainee missed or made an error on one of the steps Did the trainee remember all the steps required?
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Marx and Durkheim agreed about the nature of the problems of industrial capitalist society but disagreed about their cause and solution Essay Example
Marx and Durkheim agreed about the nature of the problems of industrial capitalist society but disagreed about their cause and solution Essay Example Marx and Durkheim agreed about the nature of the problems of industrial capitalist society but disagreed about their cause and solution Paper Marx and Durkheim agreed about the nature of the problems of industrial capitalist society but disagreed about their cause and solution Paper Essay Topic: Sociology Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) was a French, arguably quintessential, sociologist with his assertions that society sui generis is the subject matter of sociology. Treat social facts as things is a famous dictum of Durkheim by which he means social phenomena is an objective realm, external to individuals. Social facts are ways of acting, thinking or feeling that are external to individuals, having their own reality outside the perceptions and lives of individuals (Giddens, 2001, p9). These social facts exercise a coercive power over individuals. Durkheim considered sociology as a new science. By examining traditional philosophical questions empirically, sociology could be used to elucidate these questions. Durkheim was intensely concerned about the social pathology of contemporary industrial society (Anderson et al, 1987, p47). Durkheim was also particularly interested in social and moral solidarity and so studied what holds society together and what keeps society from descending into chaos. Durkheim approached modernity and the industrial revolution through the study of the division of labour (LaCapra, 1972, p82). In 1893 Durkheim wrote his first major works, The Division of Labour in Society in which he contrasted mechanical and organic solidarity and related them to the growth of distinctions between different occupations the division of labour. Durkheim argued that primitive societies were characterised by a mechanical solidarity with a limited division of labour. Social solidarity was based on shared values, all individuals performed similar tasks and were bound together by a common collective conscience. After a gradual move towards an organic society with an advanced division of labour, individuals had different occupational roles and social solidarity was based on moral individualism and cultural pluralism. Social integration was based upon the division of labour. Although Durkheim rejected ideas of both Comte and Saint-Simon, Durkheim did believe that the organic division of labour could provide the basis for individual freedom and social co-operation if the pathological features of contemporary society were eliminated (Anderson et al, 1987, p47). Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie to sociology, which literally means without norms. Anomie exists when society fails to provide a limiting framework of social norms, resulting in unhappiness and social disorders. Durkheim aimed to establish sociology as a science and to establish the requirements to maintain social order in modern societies. After witnessing the growth of industrial production and the inequalities that resulted from this growth, Karl Marx (1818-1883) sought to explain the changes that were occurring in society during the Industrial Revolution era. Marx saw the new and old societies, capitalism and feudalism, in stark contrast. Feudalism was based on the agricultural, rural society, the opposite of industrial capitalist society. Industrial capitalism is dominated by the market. In the production of goods for the market their intrinsic worth plays little part; the worth of any commodity is its exchange value. Everything in society is dominated by the cash nexus, including labour which becomes another commodity to be bought and sold (Anderson et al, 1987, p5). Marx argued that the capitalist property-owners form a ruling class, whom Marx called the bourgeoisie, employers of wage-labour, the property-less working class, whom Marx labelled the proletariat. As industrialisation developed, large numbers of peasants moved to expanding cities and so aided the formation of an urban-based industrial working class. The middle class of merchants and manufacturers (or capitalists) were bourgeois, as distinguished from the remnant of the feudal class, from the proletariat of industrial labourers, and from the peasantry (Smelser et al, 1976, p54). Marx argued that Capitalism is inherently a class system in which class relations are characterised by conflict (Giddens, 2001, p12). In Marxs view, the bourgeoisie were able to generate profit by exploiting the proletariat through oppressive devaluation of skilled labour and its experience. Ultimately, for Marx, this led to alienation the degradation of the workers to become a most miserable sort of commodity whose misery is in inverse proportion to the power and size of his production (Marx, 1848, p77). This commodity would become the social class, called the proletariat by Marx. Labour was organised solely with regard to efficiency and the pursuit of profit. These factors led to inequalities of the working class which increased dramatically the gap between the capitalists and the working class, as well as the wealth and lifestyles of property-owners. Shopkeepers, independent craftsmen and so on were undermined as capitalist production developed a competitive appetite. Marx claimed that it is not acquisitive and competitive individuals who produce capitalist society. It is capitalist society that produces competitive and acquisitive individuals (Hughes et al, 1995). Marx and Durkheim often had conflicting ideas. However, they did share similar views about some sociological ideas. Both believed that scientifically based knowledge of society could be used to improve the conditions of humanity. Both believed their task was to discover the laws that governed the organisation of the social order and draw parallels with the ways in which the natural sciences had revealed the laws of nature. When looking at the nature of the problems of industrial capitalist society, Marx and Durkheim share the argument that the individual and collective were in opposition to one another. They both believed that the individual is a naturally self-interested being which flourished only when exempt from any kind of control by society was a manifestation of modern society and, indeed, of the most pathological features of that society (Anderson et al, 1987, p132). Marx and Durkheim both viewed the individual as a being with a need for society. However, Marx suggested that Man has a nature that will eventually assert and fulfil itself and will do so at the expense of a decadent social order (Smelser et al, 1976, p123). Durkheim claimed that Mans need for society is met less by substantive principles of justice and more by social ties and normative limits (Smelser et al, 1976, p123). Marx and Durkheim argued that we live in societies, called organic by Durkheim and capitalist by Marx, in which people are increasingly, individually, able to do what they want to do but less and less part of social groups. The idea that people should be free from external constraint was opposed by neither Durkheim nor Marx but both believe that in modern societies, extreme freedom can be a bad thing for the individual. Marx and Durkheim tried to disclose the concept of freedom of the individual in western societies of the nineteenth century as an illusion. The freedom of the individual was, Marx argued, only apparent, a superficial kind of freedom (Anderson et al, 1987, p132). Although Marx and Durkheim showed agreement about the problems of industrial capitalist society they disagreed about the causes, as we have seen, and solutions, of this society. Durkheim displayed a particular avoidance of much of Marxs work. Durkheim did relatively little to build upon the integration with the work of Marx. The Marx whom Durkheim particularly abhorred was the Marx who advocated class conflict and violent revolution in modern society (LaCapra, 1972, p23). Durkheim believed that the conception of modern society proceeded through a pathological state of rapid transition, developing into normality. Durkheim was optimistic that modern society possessed the ability to resolve the severe problems produced by industrial capitalist society. Like the political and social theorist Rousseau, Marx desired a means to vanquish the inequalities and divisions of the society of his time and to constitute a true community. In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all (Marx, 1848, p31). Marx, also like Rousseau, pinpointed the obstacle to attainment in the circumstantially developed divisions among people, particularly the division of labour. Marx argued that social change is primarily prompted by economic influences. Class conflicts provide the drive for historical development and change. Marx called this idea the materialist conception of history. The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles (Marx, 1848, p222). In accordance with his view of history, Marx argued that just like the bourgeois had united to abolish the feudal society, so too would the bourgeois be ousted and a new society installed. Marx believed that the proletariat would develop the capacity and the will overtime to revolt, resulting in the downfall of the capitalist system. This would enable a new society to evolve in which there would be no classes and so no vast divisions between rich and poor. Marx believed that inequalities would no longer contain the split of the mass of the population that were exploited by the ruling class who, in their small minority, monopolised the economical and political power. The revolution that would overthrow capitalism would lead to communism. This political ideology, derived from socialism, aimed to create a society in which private productive property, social classes and the state are absent. With the revolutionary defeat of capitalism, Marx envisaged the emergence of socialist societies in which the state would still play a role but only with the transformation of all property relations. Whereas Marx saw the solution to social problems in terms of direct political actions, Durkheim took a more Clinician-cum-managerialist view by emphasising the effective treatment of the pathological conditions which can afflict society through the deliberate reorganisation of its institutions (Hughes et al, 1995). Durkheim believed modern society would naturally evolve in the direction of normality, certainly without violent revolution (LaCapra, 1973, p22). Durkheim argues that individuals need to integrate forms of behaviour. Individuals now pursue varied lines of work, are not self-sufficient and must engage in multiple exchanges with others. The mechanical society, where individuals performed similar tasks and experienced shared values, is not enough for the individual, who wants to pursue different roles and experience freedom to do what the individual wants to do. The view of human nature held by Durkheim was that there is no natural limit to the desires, ambitions or needs of the individual. This view stands in the tradition of the English philosopher and political theorist, Thomas Hobbes. Durkheim argued that the required limits must be socially produced. Durkheims concept of anomie is a condition of society.. in which there exists little consensus, a lack of certainty on values or goals, and a loss of effectiveness in the normative and moral framework which regulates collective and individual life (Jary, 2000). Durkheim sees anomie as an abnormal social form, resulting from the failure of modern societies to move fully from a mechanical society to an organic society. What Durkheim called an anomic division of labour existed because occupations were not allocated according to skills or experience and so were obliterated. Economic activity in these societies remained unregulated by a coherent value system. Not only did Durkheim criticise the anomic character of the division of labour but also its forced and excessive character. It was forced because the inheritance of private property meant that individuals were not free to find the work most suited to their skills and talents; it was excessive because workers often had insufficient work to keep them occupied in a way that produced job satisfaction (Anderson et al, 1987, p48). Durkheim argued that these factors of the modern divisions of labour led to class conflict. Durkheims solution to the problems of industrial capitalist society was to properly regulate the division of labour. This would end class struggles, achieved through economic co-operation among modern guild associations and through the overall political and moral guidance of a liberal republican state whose power could be checked as necessary through these same guilds(Anderson et al, 1987, p48). Durkheim proposed that the organisation of intermediate groups, such as professional and occupational groups, would enable the individual to bind into the community. Both conflicting and confirming each other at various stages of their writings, Marx and Durkheim, when analysed, attract similar conclusions as to the nature of the problems of industrial capitalist societies. The theorists seem to recognise that capitalism is inevitable and both agree that inequality is the foreseeable outcome. Both Marxs and Durkheims work have attracted criticism and opposition. Marxs class analysis has been opposed for not sufficiently considering the rise of new middle class groups, or affluence. This suggests that Marxs theory of social change and revolution is wrong, although Marx never set a time scale for revolution. Durkheims work has attracted criticism for overstating general normative and social structural influences at the expense of individual agency, although it was always Durkheims intention to leave scope for the latter within his sociology (Jary, 2000). Marx developed a theory that generated specific predictions about the future of capitalism (Smelser et al, 1976, p259). Marx argued that society is a human product, that mens thinking and acting shape the social world, although he also claims that man is a social product. Marxs theory helped to shape sociology even as it was changing the world; Durkheims influence on sociology is unparalleled (Smelser et al, 1976, p70). Despite criticisms and opposing theories, Marx and Durkheim have left a major impression on the sociological world that has shaped and influenced modern sociology and its theorists.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Size, Facts, and Figures of the Alamosaurus Although there may be other genera whose fossils have yet to be discovered, Alamosaurus (Greek for Alamo lizard and pronounced AL-ah-moe-SORE-us) is one of the few titanosaurs known to have lived in the late Cretaceous (70-65 million years ago) in North America, and possibly in vast numbers: According to one analysis, there may have been as many as 350,000 of these 60-foot-long herbivores living in Texas at any given time. Its closest relative appears to have been another titanosaur, Saltasaurus. Bigger Than We Thought A recent analysis has shown that Alamosaurus may have been a bigger dinosaur than originally estimated, possibly in the weight class of its more famous South American cousin Argentinosaurus. It turns out that some of the type fossils used to reconstruct Alamosaurus may have come from adolescents rather than full-grown adults, meaning that this titanosaur may well have attained lengths of over 60 feet from head to tail and weights in excess of 70 or 80 tons. The Origin of the Name By the way, its an odd fact that Alamosaurus wasnt named after the Alamo in Texas, but the Ojo Alamo sandstone formation in New Mexico. This herbivore already had its name when numerous (but incomplete) fossils were discovered in the Lone Star State, so you might say that everything worked out in the end!